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Glass Dictionary A

abc plate: A pressed glass plate that contains embossed and/or stippled letters.

abrade: To grind shallow patterns into glass with a wheel.

abrasion: The technique of grinding shallow decoration with a wheel. The decorated areas are left unpolished.

acid etching: A technique in which controlled exposure of the surface of glass to hyrdrofluic acid results in shiny, matt or frosted decoration of the exposed area.

acid polishing: The process of giving cut glass a polished surface by dipping it briefly in a bath of hydrofluoric acid mixed with sulphuric acid.

acid stamping: The process of making a glossy, polished surface by dipping the object, usually of cut glass, into a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids.

agata glass: Art glass characterized by mottled purple or brown finished, a result of metallic stain coupled with an alcohol solution added on top of the base color.

air-twist: See twist

alabastron: A small perfume flask of a type common in the Ancient World. It was usually made of pottery but sometimes a core glass.

almorrata: A type of rose-water sprinkler with numerous spouts, made in northern Spain in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries.

aluminum hydrate: A fine, white powder manufactured brom bauxite by the Bayer process; a major ingredient in shelf primer.

aluminum oxide: A crystaline compound used in abrasives and refractories; commonly used for grinding.

Amberina: A kind of shaded amber glass patented by Jospeh Locke of the New England Glass Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1883. It contained gold in a solution, which caused the part that was reheated to take on a ruby colouring.

amphora: A large jar with two loop handles for storing liquids, generally made of pottery although examples of roman glass are known.

ancient glass: A general term that refers to all glass made from it's very development in Mesopotamia/Ancient Egypt, through the ancient Roman era.

anneal: the controlled cooling of glass to achieve the desired final distribution and amount of stress in the glass when it has reached room temperature. The annealing process is made up of two stages: anneal soak and anneal cool.

anneal cool: the stage in which glass is cooled from the annealing soak temperature to the strain point. This cooling should occur at a rate that is sufficiently slow so that undesired residual stresses will not re-appear when the glass temperature has reached equilibrium.

annealing: A process involving heating and and gradual cooling of glass in an annealing oven (lehr) that toughens glass and reduces internal stresses.

at-the-fire: The process of reheating a blown glass object at the glory hole during manufacture, to permit further manipulation with tools.

aurene glass: A type of ornamental glass with an iridescent surface made by spraying the glass with stannous chloride or lead chloride and reheating it under controlled atmospheric conditions.

aventurine: Glass containing tiny particles of shiny metallic dust, sometimes inserted between layers of glass as decoration, appearing golden or silvery and sometimes adding color.

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