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Glass Dictionary C

cable: In glass a cable is a pattern resembling the twisted strands of a rope.

cage cup (vasa diatretum): A type of beaker made by the Romans in which the body is surrounded by an openwork pattern of glass attached by small glass struts.

calcedonio: Variegated opaque glassware made in Venice in the late fifteenth century, to imitate earlier Roman agate glass (which was intended to resemble the semi-precious stone).

came: A grooved strip of lead or (rarely) another metal, generally with an H-shaped cross section, used to join separate parts of glass windows.

cameo carved: Descriptive term for glass decoration achieved by carving or acid etching through one or more layers of colored glass.

cameo glass: Cased glass in two or more layers, the outer layer carved on a wheel to create a design in relief of one colour or another. The technique, similar to the cameo cutting of stones and shells, was known to the acient Egyptians and Romans, and revived in the nineteenth century.

cane: A thin rod of clear or colour glass, used to make the stems of certain type of glasses or that is cut in slices and used in the manufacture of millefiori or mosaic glassware.

canes: rods of glass with internal decorations that can be sliced off and inserted into or betwwen layers of glass at the fire.

cantir or cantaro: A typically Spanish (Catalonian) vessel in use from the seventhteenth to nineteenth century, shaped like a closed jug with a central ring handle and two spouts, a short one for filling and pouring and a longer, thin one through which liquid can be squirted directly into the mouth.

cased glass: Glass with two or more layers of different colors, usually having the outer layer or layers partly cut away to make a design of one colour on another. The process was known in Roman times and was popular with manufacturers in Bohemia and Britain in the nineteenth century.

casting: The generic name for a wide variety of techniques used to form glass in a mold.

chimney: A glass tube, open at both ends, used to shield the flame of an oil lamp, to trap soot, and to increase the draft.

chulk glass: A colorless glass containing chalk, developed in Bohemia in the late 17th century. Vessels of thick chalk glass were often elaborately engraved.

chunked: Glass that has been heavily damaged, usually cracked, seriously chipped, or considerably worn.

cire perdue (lost wax): A casting process adapted from metallurgy, in which a model of the object to be cast is carved in wax and then encased in a mould. The wax is then melted and poured out of the mould which is refilled with molten glass.

claw-breaker (Russelbecher): A blue or green glass beaker of a type commonly made in Germany from the fith to eighth century. It tapered from a wide mouth to a small base and was decorated with two or three rows of hollow claw-like prunts.

Cloud Glass: A style of art glass created in 1922 by the English firm of Davidson's Glassworks in Gateshead. It is made by adding a small amount of dark colored glass to a lighter batch of molten colored glass at the last minute, prior to being pressed into a mold. The result is an object that contains a unique pattern of cloud-like streaks.

Cluthra: Glass with bubbles - large or small, uniform or at random - added to the miz at the fire. Often used in Scottish glass.

coin spot: An art decorating technique that consists of an all-over pattern of coin-like circles that are part of the glass.

cold colors: Pigments applied as decoration to glass by cold painting.

cold-painting: The application of coloured decoration to glassware without subsequent firing.

cold working: The collective term for the many techniques used to alter or decorate glass when it is cold.

color agent: Various powdered elements, primarily metallic oxides, that when mixed in a batch of glass, produce a variety of coloring effects.

colour-twist: See twist.

combing: Wavy or zigzag decoration achieved by applying coloured threads to the surface of a molten glass object, marvering the threads into the glass and pulling them with a special comb to form a pattern.

core-forming: A technique dating from c. 1500 BC. in which a vessel is made by trailing molten glass round a shaped core of mud or clay and sand mixed with dung, the core being removed after annealing.

crisselling (crizzling): A defect in glass consisting of a network of fine cracks. The 'disease', which leads to deterioration of the glass, is caused by a faulty balance of the ingredients in the batch. One of the most important remedies, the addition of lead oxide, was developed by George Ravenscroft in about 1676.

cristallo: A type of soda glass made with the ashes of sea plants (barilla), first developed in Venice in the fourteenth century, and which subsequently became the standard metal of the Venetian glass industry. Its softness in a molten state meant that it could easily be worked into elaborate shapes: the glass itself was suitable for diamond-point engraving but too brittle for cutting.

crown glass: Sheet glass made by blowing a bubble of glass, cutting the bubble open and then rotating it rapidly on a rod, with repeating reheating, until it formed a flat disk.The glass was then annealed and panes of the required shape cut from it. The process which was known to the Romans produced the 'bull's-eye' panes of medieval glass, which were from the centre of the sheet where the rod had been attached.

crystal: Colourless, transparent glass that resemble rock -crystal, natural quartz. The term is now generally applied to high-quality cut glass with a minimum lead oxide content.

cullet: Fragments of glass that are melted down with the fresh ingredients of a new batch.

cut glass: Glassware decorated with facets and grooves made by cutting into its surface with a wheel of iron or stone. The technique, which has been employed since pre-Roman times was applied with particular success to English and Irish lead glass in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

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